Oregano demonstrates distinct tumour-suppressive effects in the breast carcinoma model.
Kubatka P1, Kello M2, Kajo K3, Kruzliak P4, Výbohová D5, Mojžiš J2, Adamkov M6, Fialová S7, Veizerová L8, Zulli A9, Péč M10, Statelová D11, Grančai D7, Büsselberg D12.
1Department of Medical Biology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Malá Hora 4, 03601, Martin, Slovakia.
2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, P. J. Šafárik University, Kosice, Slovakia.
3Department of Pathology, Slovak Medical University, and St. Elisabeth Oncology Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.
4Laboratory of Structural Biology and Proteomics, Central Laboratories, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho tr. 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic.
5Department of Anatomy, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia.
6Department of Histology and Embryology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia.
7Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.
8Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Nuclear Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Toxicological and Antidoping Center, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.
9The Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (CCDPM), College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
10Department of Medical Biology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Malá Hora 4, 03601, Martin, Slovakia.
11Clinic of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia.
12Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation – Education City, Doha, Qatar.
PURPOSE: There has been a considerable interest in the identification of natural plant foods for developing effective agents against cancer. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of oregano in the in vivo and in vitro breast cancer model were evaluated.
METHODS: Lyophilized oregano (ORE) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation in MCF-7 cells was carried out.
RESULTS: Low-dose ORE suppressed tumour frequency by 55.5 %, tumour incidence by 44 %, and tumour volume by 44.5 % compared to control animals. Analysis of rat tumour cells showed Ki67, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase after low-dose ORE treatment. High-dose ORE lengthened tumour latency by 12.5 days; moreover, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase in carcinoma cells were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas in both treated groups. In vitro studies showed that ORE decreased survival and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In ORE-treated MCF-7 cells, an increase in cells expressing sub-G 0/G 1 DNA content and an increase in the percentage of annexin V/PI positive MCF-7 cells were observed. Again in vitro, both caspase-dependent and possible non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways were found. The deactivation of anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were observed in the ORE-treated MCF-7 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a distinct tumour-suppressive effect of oregano in the breast cancer model.
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