Characterization of Herbal Antifungal Agent, Origanum vulgare against Oral Candida spp. Isolated from Patients with Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis: An In vitro Study.

Characterization of Herbal Antifungal Agent, Origanum vulgare against Oral Candida spp. Isolated from Patients with Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis: An In vitro Study.

Author Information

Bhat V1, Sharma SM2, Shetty V3, Shastry CS4, Rao CV5, Shenoy S6, Saha S7, Balaji S8.

1 Department of Prosthodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, ABSMIDS, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Microbiology, KSHEMA, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Principal, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Biotechnology, NMAM Institute of Technology, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Microbiology, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Pharmacognosy, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Ramakrishna Dental College, and Hospitals, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Candida Associated Denture Stomatitis is the prevalent fungal pathosis in denture wearers, especially in immunocompromised patients. Existing antifungal agents are ineffective since the Candida species become resistant and also, they become toxic. Origanum vulgare is a herbal plant with high antifungal activity against Candida of blood and urine origin. However, it has never been explored against Candida from the oral cavity.

MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY: Dry leaves of the plant were purchased and authenticated. Oil extraction was done using Hydro-distillation method. Clinical isolates of Candida from denture wearers were speciated using CHROMagar. Well Diffusion test was used to confirm the antifungal activity. Hydro-distillation & Maceration methods of extraction were compared. MIC/MFC was determined using CSLI guidelines. Infra-Red Spectroscopy was used to identify the active functional group.

RESULTS: O.vulgare showed 30±3mm of zone of inhibition as against 19mm for fluconazole. The suitable extraction method was Hydro-distillation. MIC & MFC were found to be 0.024% and 0.097% respectively which was much lesser than for fluconazole (0.25%). The active functional group had chemically similar structure as Carvacrol, usually found in antifungal herbs.

CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that (a)O.vulgare is anticandidal for clinical isolates of oral Candida, (b) Hydro-distillation is an effective method as compared to Maceration (c) MIC & MFC are much lower than that of fluconazole (d) the major functional group was structurally similar to Carvacrol.

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