In vitro and in vivo efficacy of carvacrol against Echinococcus granulosus.
Fabbri J1, Maggiore MA2, Pensel PE1, Denegri GM1, Gende LB3, Elissondo MC4.
Currently, benzimidazoles are used as chemotherapeutic agents and as a complement to surgery and PAIR in the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE). They are generally applied at high doses causing side effects and, 50% of cases do not respond favorably to such chemotherapy. The use of essential oils obtained by distillation from aromatic plants would be an effective alternative or complementary to the synthetic compounds, because would not bring the appearance of side effects. Carvacrol and his isomer thymol are the main phenolic components from essential oils of Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme).The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of carvacrol against Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes. For the in vitro assay, protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus were incubated with carvacrol at the following final concentrations: 10, 5 and 1μg/ml of carvacrol.
The maximum protoscolicidal effect was found with 10μg/ml of carvacrol. Results of viability tests were consistent with the structural and ultrastructural damage observed in protoscoleces. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the germinal layer of cysts treated with carvacrol lost the multicellular structure feature. In the clinical efficacy study, a reduction in cyst weight was observed after the administration of 40mg/kg of carvacrol during 20days in mice with cysts developed during 4 months, compared to that of those collected from control mice. Given that the in vivo effect of carvacrol was comparable with the treatment of reference with ABZ and the fact that is a safe compound, we postulated that carvacrol may be an alternative option for treatment of human CE.
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